Anti-Trust in the Digital Age: Open-Data and the MaaS (Mobility as a Service) Industry数字时代的反垄断:开放数据和MaaS行业(移动性服务业)

时间:2021-09-15         阅读:


主题Anti-Trust in the Digital Age: Open-Data and the MaaS (Mobility as a Service) Industry数字时代的反垄断:开放数据和MaaS行业(移动性服务业)

主讲人Simon Fraser University(西蒙菲莎大学)Hendrik Wolff教授

主持人西南财经大学经济与管理研究院 陈晓光教授



主办单位:经济与管理研究院 国际交流与合作处 科研处


Hendrik Wolff is Professor of Economics at Simon Fraser University, Burnaby (close to Vancouver), Canada. He is co-editor of the Journal of Environmental Economics and Management and on the editorial council of the new journal, Journal of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists (JAERE). He received a PhD in agricultural and resource economics from the University of California, Berkeley. Hendrik's main research is in environmental economics, working at the intersection of transportation, air pollution, energy and health.

Hendrik Wolff博士为加拿大Simon Fraser University经济学教授,他是环境经济学顶尖期刊Journal of Environmental Economics and Management的共同主编,也是另一领域顶尖期刊Journal of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists编委会成员。Wolff博士从加州大学伯克利分校取得博士学位,研究领域为环境经济学,重点关注交通、空气污染、能源和健康领域的交叉研究。


Recent years have seen an unprecedent growth of new Mobility as a Service (MaaS) options: ride-hailing, shared bicycles, electric scooters and more. This new industry presents potentially transforming opportunities to our cities, but also new challenges. In this paper, we first characterize the MaaS industry and demonstrate that there exist strong platform economic network effects within firms which tend to produce monopolistic market outcomes. As a consequence, cities are often dominated by one or two large mobility players. So far, policy makers have reacted with traditional anti-trust tools: i) implementing a cap system that does not build on the natural benefits of the platform effects (and that led to inflated medallion values, for example in the taxi industry) and ii) exclusive contracts between the city and operators, which lends itself to inefficient rent seeking. In this paper we propose a new anti-trust policy that leverages the dynamics of the platform economy to enable a more competitive market. Our new policy requires real time data sharing between operators and an aggregator market. We show that this open data policy provides at minimum the same welfare gains to the consumer, while also providing access to small firms to enter an otherwise highly restrictive market via intermediary firms (aggregators), hence expecting lower marginal cost of mobility provision, reduced waiting times as well increases in niche products. Indeed, some jurisdictions (Finland, British Columbia, Seattle, and Los Angeles) 2 have already begun deploying “open data” initiatives. Our paper provides the conceptual basis for such new data driven approaches. We provide details on the data architecture design and tradeoffs, including lessons from failed initiatives, and describe the potential welfare effects on consumers, suppliers, the government and the environment, compared to traditional anti-trust regulation.

近年来,新的出行即服务(MaaS)出现了前所未有的增长:网约车、共享单车、电动滑板车等。这个新行业为我们的城市带来了潜在的变革机遇,但也带来了新的挑战。在本文中,我们首先描述了MaaS行业,并证明了在倾向于产生垄断市场结果的公司内部存在强大的平台经济网络效应。因此,城市通常由一两个大型交通参与者主导。到目前为止,政策制定者已经对传统的反垄断工具做出了反应:i)实施不建立在平台效应的自然利益基础上的上限制度(这导致奖章价值膨胀,例如在出租车行业)和ii )城市和运营商之间的排他性合同,这导致寻租效率低下。在本文中,我们提出了一种新的反垄断政策,该政策利用平台经济的动态来实现更具竞争力的市场。我们的新政策要求运营商和聚合市场之间实时共享数据。我们的研究表明,这种开放数据政策至少为消费者提供了相同的福利收益,同时还为小公司提供了通过中介公司(聚合器)进入其他高度限制性市场的机会,因此预计流动性提供的边际成本较低,减少等待时间以及增加利基产品加。事实上,一些司法管辖区(芬兰、不列颠哥伦比亚省、西雅图和洛杉矶)已经开始部署“开放数据”计划。我们的论文为这种新的数据驱动方法提供了概念基础。我们提供了有关数据架构设计和权衡的详细信息,包括失败举措的经验教训,并描述了与传统反垄断监管相比对消费者、供应商、政府和环境的潜在福利影响。